In attempts to bring China out of its technological backwardness, the Great LeapForward was a program implemented by Mao in 1958. It was an extension of his secondfive-year plan that set up small backyard furnaces to increase steel production and tocreate communes out of the collective farms already established. The program ended infailure due to the populations reluctance to enter communes and that the steelproduced was of low quality and quantity. To add to the underperformance of the program,three straight years of poor harvest left many of the people that had joined communeshungry or starving. The failure of the Great Leap Forward lead many high ranking communistparty members to doubt the ability of Mao causing him to resign as chairman of China in1959. In the mid 1960s factions of the communist party began to surface against Maoand many started to believe that a Marxist state was not working. Mao did not want to losepower as the Chairman of the Communist Party and felt the only way to keep power was tocall for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. It was the revitalization of therevolutionary feelings of the youth while, at the same time, it was used to oust opponentsof Mao. The movement slowed production, closed schools, hurt the economy and most of all,made foreign nations sever their ties to China. Disorder was rampant throughout thecountry and especially in Wuhan in July 1967. The end result of the revolution was ageneration without education and many farms lay unused for years. Also, a new group ofpeople, including Deng Xiaoping, began to gain power in the communist party. The failureof the Great Leap Forward was the beginning of the downfall of Mao as a politician. Hisinability to deal with his failure caused him to do the only thing he knew well,revolution. This revolution led to nations around the world looking down on China andcreated a lost generation.
China's legal system, instituted after the establishment of the PRC in 1949, is largely based on that of the former USSR. However, after 1957, Mao Zedong's government consistently circumvented the system in its campaign to purge the country of rightist elements and "counter-revolutionaries." The Ministry of Justice was closed down in 1959, not to reopen until 1979, and the excesses of the Cultural Revolution wrought havoc on legal institutions and procedures. Efforts to reestablish a credible legal system resumed in 1977 (when there were no lawyers in China), as party moderates came to power. These efforts were accelerated in the early 1980s as China sought to provide the legal protection required by foreign investors.
Turning Point In History: May Fourth Movement
Three faithsConfucianism, , and have long been established in China and the religious practice of the average Chinese traditionally has been an eclectic mixture of all three. Confucianism has no religious organization but consists of a code of ethics and philosophy; filial piety, benevolence, fidelity, and justice are among its principal virtues. Taoism, a native Chinese religion that evolved from a philosophy probably founded in the 6th century bc by Laotzu (Laozi), and Buddhism, imported from India during the Han dynasty, both have elaborate rituals. Tradition-minded Chinese base their philosophy of life on Confucianism, but such old habits of thought came under strong attack during the Cultural Revolution.
(1972),Turning Point in China: An Essay on The Cultural Revolution ..
Sun Yat-sen had an extensive education in the United States and Hong Kong to become amedical doctor, however soon after graduation he turned to politics. His first major rolein China was in 1895 where he helped stage the unsuccessful Canton uprising against theEmperor. He left China for 16 years to return in 1911 when the successful rebellion inWuhan prompted other providences to rebel. He believed that the time was right tooverthrow the emperor. To help with his effort, he strengthened the Kuomintang (KMT) ornationalist party that same year and proclaiming himself provisional president of a newlyformed republic. However, he was forced to resign in 1913. During the next year he stagedan unsuccessful revolution that caused him to leave China and to stage two morerevolutions in 1917 and 1921. By 1923, he was able to lead a small band of a new regimeand reorganized the KMT in the Soviet Union Communist model. In 1924, he appointed ChiangKai-shek as president. Sun Yat-sens fight was to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty, unifyChina, and establish a democracy. He summarized his principles in the Three Principals ofthe People: nationalism, socialism, and democracy. In 1925, Sun Yat-sen died, however heis remembered today as the father of modern China. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, although a visionary,had a hard time accomplishing his goal due to his inability to raise a large enough armyand appeal to the public.