IB Biology notes on 4.4 Genetic engineering and biotechnology

Dr. Robert Pazdro, who is an Assistant Professor of Foods and Nutrition, research addresses critical questions pertaining to the genetic basis of aging and age-related chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.

International Journal of Research in Engineering & Applied Sciences, volume 2, issue 6: 23-327.
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Murthy, "Studies on Exhaust Emissions from CopperCoated Gasohol Run Spark Ignition Engine with Catalytic Converter" International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Mechanical Engineering Volume 2011.
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International Journal of Engineering Research ..

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2(4), 516-522.
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To carry the editing metaphor further, we might compare a technology such as CRISPR to a keyboard. To edit a novel, you need a reliable keyboard, so that when you want to make some correction you don’t end up introducing new typos or errors. But a good keyboard will not help an editor who does not understand the basic principles of grammar, spelling, syntax, and so forth. Right now, scientists understand some of the basic syntax of the genetic code — although, as in English, there are many exceptions to any of the known rules. This means that scientists can identify some obvious genetic errors or mutations that cause disease. But to go beyond simple copy-editing to improving the clarity or eloquence of a text, an editor needs to know something of how to convey meaning with words, sentences, paragraphs. Here, scientists are far from having that kind of mastery of the genetic language. Indeed, the metaphor of code and language breaks down quite quickly beyond the rules that govern the translation of a sequence of DNA to a sequence of amino acids. (Indeed, the use of the term “editing” shows how much we have come to understand DNA as an information-bearing code, whereas the older term “genetic engineering” puts more of the emphasis on the mechanistic aspects of molecular biology; both are metaphors, however, and neither is quite right.)


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Still, it seems as though CRISPR may be poised to overcome the major technical hurdles to genetically engineering human beings — namely, being able reliably and precisely to modify the DNA sequences of human cells, including embryos. Scientists have already used it to create genetically modified mice, pigs, and non-human primates. There have even been two describing the use of CRISPR by Chinese scientists to modify human embryos (which they subsequently destroyed); it is generally believed that scientists in China have conducted numerous similar experiments without publishing their results. In the published studies, the error rates in the genetic modifications were very high, but other researchers have to improve the accuracy of the technique significantly, and so it may soon be precise enough for clinical use.

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