The point of discussion here is whether the layers were deposited over vast geological times or over a relatively quick period. Steve Austin investigated the Mount St. Helens eruption, which produced a small scale version of the Grand Canyon. He showed that thousands of layers were deposited over a number of rather than being laid down gradually over long (4.5 billion years) geologic ages. We are not stating that this proves that the layers of the earths surface were laid down quickly. We are stating that ample evidence exists that the layers of the earth could be produced quickly by a geologic catastrophe like the flood in the Bible. Since neither model can prove itself in this area, we will award a tie to the creation and evolution models.
In the evolutionary process, an increase in biological complexity does not represent a “free lunch” — it is bought and paid for, because random genetic variation is subjected to natural selection by the environment, which itself is already structured. In fact, researchers are beginning to use Darwinian processes, implemented in computers or in vitro, to evolve complex systems and to provide solutions to design problems in ways that are beyond the power of mere intelligent agents.
Charles Darwin Theory Of Evolution Essay Age of the Sage
Next headline on: Darwinism Intelligent Design Bible and TheologyEvolutionary Mutualism Flutters 12/12/2008 Dec 12, 2008 A story on ScienceDaily is decorated with a butterfly collection. Amazonian butterfliesstudied by an international team were chosen to test Darwins theory ofmutualism a kind of symbiosis in which two species benefit one another. The test yielded a surprise.
evolution debate called The Scopes (monkey) Trials of July 21 1925.
Natural selection: Ayala has defined natural selection as "the differential reproduction of alternative hereditary variants" or alleles that enhance the survival of the organisms that carry them and enable them to "reproduce more successfully than organisms carrying alterative variants." The term "differential reproduction" includes differences in survival, fertility, mating success, and rate of development (Ayala 36). The amount of genetic variation is astonishingly high in all organisms, especially those that reproduce sexually, and thus the opportunities for evolutionary change in response to environmental conditions are virtually unlimited. While most genetic mutations are adaptively neutral, and many prove to be harmful, the comparatively smaller number of beneficial mutations is more than enough to account for innumerable variations that have made possible the emergence of new varieties and new species. As the number of favorably variable genes increases, and the number of forms of these genes likewise increases, the frequency of change in these forms is likely to grow at the expense of other variations. The frequency in a large natural population may be very small in a generation but increases in effect over several generations. It has been demonstrated mathematically that "there is a direct correlation between the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolutionary change by natural selection" (Ayala 36, 37).
Nothing in biology makes sense in the dark of evolution.
Changes in gene frequency, gene flow, and genetic drift by themselves do not ensure evolutionary change, for these processes are random with respect to adaptation. Natural selection, which selects for beneficial over harmful mutations, provides the directionality for such genetic changes. Not only does it make possible the survival and improvement of the organization of living beings, it also makes possible their diversity (Ayala 40). This sustained directional selection leads to major changes in the forms of living things and their ways of life, with some changes occurring with greater rapidity than others, over long periods of geologic time, that is, time calculated in millions of years. These processes illustrate a convention often expressed by biologists: "natural selection works by converting variation within populations to differences among populations" (Gould, 2002, 748).