Even though I sometimes face confusion about my cultural identity, I know that, after all, America is a melting pot. This debate within myself is the product of being fed the incessant mantra that we are truly a multicultural and diverse nation, and I’m sure Mexican-Americans aren’t the only ones in this country who experience this self-reflection.
For a long time, Latin America and Mexico had suffered from slavery and oppression, neocolonialism and imperialism. Since members of a community took an identical view of their culture, institutionalizing its autonomy risked perpetuating the role of the dominant elite and threatening basic individual liberties to which the wider society could not remain wholly indifferent, especially when disaffected individuals created disorder or asked for help. Mexican Revolution was one of the main steps against the U.S. dictatorship.
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The next step was a new post-revolutionary constitution created by the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1929. This party was turned into the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) and ruled in Mexico till the end of the XX century. The struggle against colonialism gave certain opportunities and resulted in the land reform, worker rights and nationalization of oil and copper industries. The most important was a separation of a church from the state. Since, however, the society was faced with the common problem of reconciling the demands of unity and diversity (Rouquié, 1987). These principles were not intended to prescribe a model but to act as navigational devices. Again, the independence made some sense in an undeveloped agricultural economy, but none in an industrialized society in which constant social and economic mobility and close interactions between groups broke through the communal barriers and required a shared economic and political life with a common body of rules, norms and practices. After José Vasconcelos was appointed minister of education following the fall of Carranza, he named Lombardo director of the National Preparatory School, a post regarded as highly important in Mexican culture life, and formerly reserved as a mark of honor for mature men who had achieved fame and distinction. One of the fundamental needs the satisfaction of which the country has for many years been demanding and with ever greater insistence continues to demand, is the improvement of the culture level of the working masses and the physical betterment of the population (Smith, 2004). The obligation of sparing no effort to meet those needs as fully as possible is not exclusively one of the state but also of the workers themselves and of the companies organized for purposes of profit which have obtained and are obtaining large profits from trade, from the manufacturing industries, or from the exploitation of the country’s natural resources. One of the most interesting facts was that Mexican students used poetry and art to speak about their problems ma and expectations fighting against the government. The min changes concerned social and cultural self-identity and new consciousness of people who valued independence and freedom (Markiewicz 1993).