A list of all the characters in Crime and Punishment

Researchers and pollsters play a crucial role in measuring and representing public opinion. Given the repercussions of presenting distorted measures, the wording and formats of some survey questions should be revised to not exaggerate the public’s support for punitive policies. As described in Section II, Americans are far less supportive of the death penalty when provided with life imprisonment as a sentencing option. And although the public expresses a great deal of pragmatism in its views of crime policy – supporting not just punishment, but also rehabilitation and prevention – this range of preferences is lost in many reports.

Crime and Punishment in Elizabethan England

To guide and give greater momentum to these reforms, this report examines a key force driving criminal justice outcomes: racial perceptions of crime. A complex set of factors explains the severity and selectivity of punishment in the United States, including public concern about crime as well as racial differences in crime rates. This report synthesizes existing research showing that skewed racial perceptions of crime – particularly, white Americans’ strong associations of crime with blacks and Latinos – have bolstered harsh and biased crime control policies.


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A contemporary description of crime and punishment in Shakespeare's England

Punishment in the United States is both severe and selective. With the world’s highest incarceration rate and one in nine prisoners serving life sentences, the United States remains the only Western democracy still using the death penalty.1) Low-income people of color2) have disproportionately borne the brunt of these policies. Nearly 60% of middle-aged African American men without a high school degree have served time in prison.3) And while blacks and Latinos together comprise 30% of the general population, they account for 58% of prisoners.4) Criminal justice policies and practices, and not just crime rates, are key drivers of these trends: correctional populations have grown during periods of declining crime rates and people of color are disproportionately punished even for crimes that they do not commit at higher rates than whites.5)


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By increasing support for punitive policies, racial perceptions of crime have made sentencing more severe for all Americans. The United States now has the world’s highest imprisonment rate, with one in nine prisoners serving life sentences. Racial perceptions of crime, combined with other factors, have led to the disparate punishment of people of color. Although blacks and Latinos together comprise just 30% of the general population, they account for 58% of the prison population.

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These figures should be interpreted with three important caveats. First, the wording of the most widely used survey questions exaggerates public punitiveness. For example, support for the death penalty diminishes significantly when respondents are given the option of sentencing someone to life without the possibility of parole.28) In fact, a recent poll found that the majority of Americans support life without parole over execution for someone convicted of murder.29) Punitive sentiment also recedes when questions are reworded to ask whether the courts are “too lenient” rather than “not harsh enough.”30) Second, public support for punitive policies is often based on inaccurate understanding of existing policies.31) For example, research on federal sentencing shows that juries’ sentencing recommendations are far below applicable sentencing guidelines.32) Finally, Americans remain supportive of rehabilitation as a correctional goal – especially for the young33) – and support addressing the root causes of crime rather than only responding to crime with punishment.34) In fact, the American public is pragmatic in its crime-control preferences35) – simultaneously supporting both punishment and rehabilitation rather than expressing ideological support for just one goal, although this finding is also affected by survey wording.36) Yet the racial divide in punitive sentiment persists even with more nuanced survey approaches.37)