Moreover, each individual has different exposition of it, which depends on the own experience, class, race, background, occuption, education, family and etc.
Rosenberg studied 377 DNA sequences from 1056 individuals across 52 populations worldwide utilising a software programme called Structure, which finds the most rational way of disaggregating any set of data into distinct categories. When asked to break the data up into five groups, Structure created clusters that correlated closely with what we call 'races': sub-Saharan Africans, Caucasians, East Asians, Australasians and Native Americans. Rosenberg's study seems to suggest that, however small the differences between races, they are nevertheless sufficient to pick them out.
based on real and perceived racial differences
Continental groups represent neither the greatest degree of genetic differentiation within humankind, nor necessarily the most useful way of dividing up human populations. There is no rational reason to define race by continent.
Essay on racial discrimination in india
In essence, ethnic and racial discrimination, and superiority based on racial differences are morally and scientifically false, dangerous, as well as socially unjust.
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In any case, genetic differences between races are likely to have been the result, not primarily of natural selection, but of two other evolutionary forces, whose effects show up much more quickly - genetic drift and the founder effect. Genetic drift refers to the random changes to gene frequencies that occurs over time, especially in a small population. The most extreme case of genetic drift is called the 'founder effect'. If a small number of people leave one community to form another one, the two groups are, thanks to chance differences, unlikely to have exactly the same genetic profiles.
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The debate about race is not a debate about whether differences exist between human populations - they do - but about the significance of such differences. In the nineteenth century races were seen as fixed groups, almost akin to distinct species, each with special behaviour and physical characteristics that distinguished one from the other. The races could be ranked on an evolutionary hierarchy, with whites at the top and blacks at the bottom.
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The article by Nadine Gordimer (1975) in "Country Lovers" and Alice Walker (1970) in "The Welcome Table" explored the theme of racism and apartheid in different contexts....
Advocating racial segregation and preservation.
Modern humans first evolved on the East African savannah some 150,000 years ago, but did not begin migrating to the rest of the world for another 90,000 years. Any differences between races, therefore, would be at most 60,000 years old. For many, there simply has not been sufficient time to develop deep divisions between races.