* * *Antony Clayton, "Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism: who believed in ghosts in Hogarth's England?".Online essay which attempts to unravel the intriguing iconography of Hogarth's print Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism.
Eastman’s desire to bring photography to more people, and to satisfy the needs of the growing number of amateur photographers, led him to develop many new products. In 1885 his roll-holder adaptor allowed the heavy and fragile glass plates to be replaced by a roll of sensitive paper; the success of this device inspired him to design a new camera with the roll-holder built in. The result was the Kodak camera (1888), for which Eastman chose the name; it was designed for the general public, who had only to point it in the right direction and release the shutter. When the 100-exposure roll provided with the camera had been exposed, the whole apparatus was returned to Eastman’s factory, where the paper roll film was developed and printed, the camera reloaded and returned to the customer; ‘You press the button, we do the rest’ was his slogan.
Blamire, 1792 An Essay on Prints ; ..
* * *Marjorie Bowen, William Hogarth: The Cockney's Mirror (London: Methuen, 1936).This study on Hogarth "is divided into four parts; the first part gives the background of William Hogarth's life and pictures, the second recounts his career and character and his attitude to his own genius, the third gives the stories, actors (real or imagined) of the principal pictures and prints, and the fourth describes and analyses the work from the point of view of aesthetics."ONLINE ARTICLES AND EXHIBITIONS ON WILLIAM HOGARTHClick on the area you are interested in:Online Biographies of William HogarthOnline Essays on HogarthOnline Exhibitions and Reviews of Museum ExhibitionsBook ReviewsCourse Descriptions, Lecture Resources, and some other Educational SitesMiscellaneousOther Areas of Interest in Hogarth ONLINE BIOGRAPHIES OF WILLIAM HOGARTH:Dale Keiger, "A Scholar's Progress", Johns Hopkins Magazine, November 2000.
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Alice Boughton's 1905 essay "Photography, A Medium of Expression" was reprinted in Camera Work, the magazine edited by Stieglitz. Two of her comments seem pertinent to this free-spirited image:
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Clergyman, garden theorist and early historian of prints. Gilpin was the son of Captain John Bernard Gilpin (1701-1776) and Matilda Langstaffe (1703-1773). He attended school in Carlisle, then at St. Bees, near Whitehaven in Cumberland, England. He entered Queen’s College, Oxford in 1740, graduating with a B.A. in 1744. After ordination as a deacon in 1746, he was appointed curate of Irthington in Cumberland. He returned to Oxford for an MA in 1748. There he began collecting prints, developing a sophisticated appreciation well beyond the simple criteria of verisimilitude. The same year he wrote of his experiences of the gardens at Stowe, Buckinghamshire in his anonymous, Dialogue upon the Gardens of the Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Cobham at Stowe. Gilpin married his first cousin, Margaret Gilpin (1725-1807), in 1751/52. In 1753 he became headmaster at Cheam School for Boys, Surrey. At Cheam, he introduced new scheme for educating his wards, including esthetic appreciation and sports. At the time, Gilpin's early garden theory his his Dialogue was overshadowed by the 1756 essay on The Sublime and the Beautiful by the philosopher Edmund Burke (1729-1797). Gilpin turned his attention to graphics, issuing his 1768 Essay on Prints, again written anonymously, as a primer to the collecting and appreciation of graphics. The essay, which included a discussion of types of print and on individual artists, went through numerous editions. Between 1768 and 1776 Gilpin spent his summers traveling throughout England making notes for a further book. These writings circulated privately until William Mason (1725-1797) and the Dorothy (Cavendish), Duchess of Portland (1750-1794), convinced him to publish the accounts. These influenced aesthetic perception for amateur artists and travelers for the next generation. In 1777 Gilpin retired as headmaster to be the Vicar of Boldre in the New Forest, Hampshire. A third edition of his Essay on Prints appeared in 1781, the first to carry Gilpin's name. Among later works, Observations Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty [. . . ] of Cumberland and Westmoreland (1786) was particularly important for its prefiguring of romantic appreciation of ruins (Scaleby Castle, in that case) and the Lake District. By the end of his life, Gilpin's Essay on Prints had gone through four editions.
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The essay shows that the print, in Hogarth's typical irony, updates a long pictorial and literary tradition of sleeping during a sermon; sleep, the characteristic signifier of indolence combined with lustful thoughts, a vice that a hard working and ambitious member of the rising middle-class such as Hogarth would have had little patience with.