Welfare reform on American Indian reservations: Initial experience of service providers and recipients on reservations in Arizona.
Pandey, S., Brown, E. F., Scheuler-Whitaker, L. & Collier-Tenison, S. (2002). The Social Policy Journal , 1(1), 75-97.
This article documents trends in welfare caseloads and some initial experiences of service providers and welfare recipients on reservations in Arizona under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). The authors document the issues and concerns of state and tribal service providers as they implement the legislation on reservations that are often geographically isolated and which lack infrastructure, jobs, child care, and transportation. Also recorded are experiences of women with children on reservations with the 1996 federal welfare legislation. These families experience similar barriers when trying to move from welfare to work as do their counterparts across the country; however, these barriers are magnified on reservations. The welfare recipients’ barriers include: a shortage of employment opportunities on reservations; a lack of transportation and child care facilities; low levels of education and job experience; and, individual and family problems. Poor families in Indian communities face additional barriers to employment because of their geographic isolation, lack of access to basic necessities (like telephones), as well as stereotypes and discrimination by employees due to ethnicity or personal/family histories.
Surveys many of the central theoretical, empirical, and conceptual analyses in the welfare state literature since the mid-1970s. Volume 1 addresses functionalism, neo-Marxism, power resources, modernization, and sociopolitical issues. Volume 2 includes essays on conceptual definitions of the welfare state and the impact of globalization and Europeanization. Volume 3 reviews issues of gender, ethnic and social diversity, and welfare state outcomes.
Essays on 'The Welfare State': R M
Everyone is still on welfare: The role of redistribution in social policy.
Abramovitz, M. (2001, October). Social Work, 46(4),297, 12p, 6 charts.
Most people have an inaccurate assessment of who is “onwelfare.” Two decades have passed since Social Work published the original version of this article, which applied Titmuss’s framework of a three-tiered social welfare system and showed that nearly “everyone is on welfare.” Based on new data and a more in-depth analysis, this article re-examines who benefits from and who pays for social, fiscal, and corporate welfare and concludes that all three welfare systems continue to serve and to favor the middle class, wealthy households, and large corporations. Social workers can work to transform the system from one that rewards power and privilege to one that ensures distributivejustice for all.
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When it comes to the welfare state, I don’t think that the key to a successful reform necessarily lies in the cutting back of government spending, but rather a redistribution of the budget....
Titmuss essays welfare states - Olga Zhytkova Estates
Welfare use as a life course event: Toward a new understanding of the U.S. safety net.
Rank, M. R. & Hirschl, T. A. (2002, July). Social Work, 47(3), 237-248.
What proportion of the American population uses a social safety net program during the course of adulthood? To address this question, the authors constructed a series of life tables using 30 years of longitudinal data. The results indicate that two-thirds of Americans between the ages of 20 and 65 will at some point reside in a household that receives benefits from a means-tested welfare program (food stamps, Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, or other cash welfare). Such assistance is often in the form of in-kind programs, such as food stamps or Medicaid. The findings also indicate that the use of welfare tends to take place over fairly short intervals of time. For example, although 65 percent of Americans will use welfare by age 65, only 15.9 percent will do so for five or more consecutive years. However, once the use of welfare occurs, it is quite likely to occur again at some point during adulthood. Results suggest that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the use of the United States social safety net is a mainstream experience.
Richard Titmuss: welfare as good conduct - ScienceDirect
Child care services in the JOBS program.
Hagen, J. L. (2004, August). Children & Youth Services Review , 26(8), 697-710.
The Jumpstart Our Business Strength (JOBS) legislation reflected the expectations that mothers, even those with young children, should participate in the labor force to increase their level of economic self-sufficiency. This change in expectations was accompanied by the recognition that, to fulfill these expectations, mothers needed access to child care services. In implementing the JOBS program and the associated child care provisions, states fulfilled their obligations to assure that child care was available and provided to at least enough JOBS participants to meet the federally mandated requirements for participation. However, such child care issues as funding, access, quality, and transportation emerged with the implementation of the JOBS program and can be anticipated to be significant concerns under the new welfare program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Additionally, under TANF, work expectations have been expanded but without a commitment to ensure child care services for those required to participate.