This encompassing violence does not work upon the colonized people only; it modifies the attitude of the colonialists who become aware of manifold Dien Bien Phus.
African Americans were indeed forced to fight, quite literally, for their survival following the war. James Weldon Johnson characterized the bloody summer of 1919 as the Red Summer. Fears of labor unrest, "bolshevism" stemming from the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the return of black soldiers spawned a nationwide surge in violence, much of it directed at African Americans. Race riots erupted in several cities, the most significant occurring in Washington, D.C., and Chicago. In October 1919, whites in Elaine, Arkansas, massacred hundreds of black people in response to the efforts of sharecroppers to organize themselves. In the South, the number of reported lynchings swelled from sixty-four in 1918 to eighty-three in 1919. At least eleven of these victims were returned soldiers. For African Americans, the end of the war brought anything but peace.
Violence & The Left – Campus & Streets | National Review
To regain the initiative on the war front, President Johnson signed off on Operational Plan 34-A on January 19, 1964. The plan called for graduated pressure on North Vietnam, proceeding in stages from surveillance and small hit-and-run raids by South Vietnamese commandos, then in operation, to more destructive “airborne and seaborne raids on important military and civilian installations” such as bridges, railways, and coastal fortifications, then to large-scale “aerial attacks conducted against critical DRV installations or facilities, industrial and/or military,” designed to destroy North Vietnam’s infrastructure and incapacitate its economy. This secret plan, now declassified, amounted to a declaration of war against North Vietnam. Although U.S. officials were well aware that the insurgency in the south was largely sustained by the rural population rather than by Hanoi, they reasoned that increased pressure on North Vietnam could reduce the flow of weapons and supplies to the NLF and, in any case, punish the DRV for supporting the NLF.
Page 2 Human Nature and War Essay
Jim Crow segregation, legitimized by the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Supreme Court ruling, forced black people to use separate and usually inferior facilities. The southern justice system systematically denied them equal protection under the law and condoned the practice of vigilante mob violence. As an aspiring migrant from Alabama wrote in a letter to the Chicago Defender, "[I] am in the darkness of the south and [I] am trying my best to get out."
Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology
Yet American policy has continued to develop in the oppositedirection. This study attempts to discover why this should be so. Itfinds its answer not in the inadequacy of statesmanship or in themachinations of evil men, but in what seem to the drafters of thisreport to be the unsound premises upon which policy is based. MostAmericans accept without question the assumption that winning thepeace depends upon a simultaneous reliance upon military strength andlong-range programs of a positive and constructive character. Theyaccept also the assumption that totalitarian communism is the greatestevil that now threatens men and that this evil can be met only byviolence, or at least by the threat of violence. We believe theseassumptions cannot be sustained, and therefore that the policies basedon them are built upon sand. We have here attempted to analyze ourreasons, and without denying the value of proposals that might easepresent tensions, to suggest another and less widely consideredalternative built on a different assumption, namely, that militarypower in today's world is incompatible with freedom, incapable ofproviding security, and ineffective in dealing with evil.
How the war on drugs creates violence - The Washington Post
There is no doubt that terrorism has a profound effect on the world. Various tactics are used to try and control the people, government or the economy. It is known that terrorism has a profound effect, but how much of an effect does it have? How can we measure the world’s response to the acts of violence being brought on the innocent people of the affected region?